Apsu (a.k.a Abzu) is a deity which represents fresh water from underground aquifers that was given a religious quality in Sumerian and Akkadian mythology, like lakes, springs, rivers, wells, etc. The name Apsu is driven from Abzu, which means “far water” in Akkadian (ab means “water” and zu means “far”).
Anshar is the god of the sky in the Akkadian mythology, and the principal of male. He is the grandson of Apsu, and Kishar’s husband and twin brother. His name means “sky pivot” or “sky axle” in Akkadian.
Sin is the Sumerian god of the moon in the Mesopotamian mythology. His name means “illuminator” in Akkadian. Notice that Sin is pronounced Shin in Japanese, which means “rage”.
Nabu is the Babylonian god of wisdom and writing, and the son of Marduk. In Babylonian, his name means something like “He who has called”. In the Babylonian astrology, Nabu is associated with the planet Mercury.
Nergal is an ancient Sumero-Babylonian deity and the god of the netherworld. He is an evil god who brings war, pestilence, fever and devastation. The planet Mars was originally named after him, and later changed to “Mars” the Latin name of the Greek god of war, who’s Nergal’s equivalent. Nergal is also Sin’s brother. His name means “lord who prowls by night”.
Marduk is the fertility god in the Babylonian mythology and a patron of the city of Babylon. He is also considered to be the god of thunderstorms, and is connected with water, vegetation, judgment, and magic. Surprisingly, in the Babylonian astrology, Marduk is associated with the planet Jupiter. His name means “bull (or calf) of the sun” in Babylonian and is also the origin of the Jewish name Mordecai.
Ishtar is the Assyrian and Babylonian goddess of fertility, love, war, and sex. She is equivalent to the Sumerian goddess Inanna and the Semitic goddess Astarte. Ishtar is considered to be Sin’s daughter. Her name means “she who brings light” in Babylonian. She is associated with the planet Venus in the Babylonian astrology.
Kishar is the goddess of the earth in the Mesopotamian mythology. She is Anshar’s wife and twin sister, and the granddaughter of Apsu. While Anshar is the male principal, Kishar is the female principal. Her name means “earth axle” in Akkadian.